Codifying my secular worldview
This is similar to Objectivism, insofar as I've only codified the general deductions, so it should please most people here. Nothing too controversial, just showing how everything is derived. This relates very much to presuppositionalism as well, as their only "argument" is to assert that we don't have a coherent worldview. So this is the reply. It's "Francois Tremblay's worldview", and perhaps that of some other people as well.
I would welcome any additions I should make, any errors I made, any clarifications I need to make, etc.
(M1) I exist. (Axiomatically observed)
(M2) Other things exist. (Axiomatically observed)
(M3) I am conscious. (Axiomatically observed)
(M4) I exist in a definite way. (Axiomatically observed)
(M5) Other things exist in a definite way. (Axiomatically observed)
(M5 expanded) = (M6) Things are what they are. A is A.
(M6 expanded) = (ML) System of basic logic (founded on the law of identity, law of non-contradiction, law of excluded middle)
(M1) + (M3) = (M7) My consciousness is a thing that exists.
(ML) => (M8) Either the primacy of existence is true, or the primacy of consciousness is true.
(M7) + (M8) = (M9) The primacy of existence is true.
Another way to derive :
(M5) + (ML) + "if the primacy of consciousness is true, then things may have an indefinite nature" = (M9)
(ML) => (M10) Either reality is objective, or reality is subjective.
(M9) + (M10) = (M11) Reality is objective.
Another way to derive is through (ML) and the fallacy of stolen concept. Same for (M9).
(M5) + (M11) = (M12) All existents have a definite nature.
(M3) + any proposition = (E1) I can direct my attention (causal free will)
(M2) + (M3) = (E2) I perceive. I perceive other things that have a specific nature.
Induction on (E2) = (E3) I conceptualize.
(M2) + (M3) + (E2) = (E4) I observe that there are introspective and extrospective methods. Define the latter as "reason".
(M11) + (E4) = (E5) Only extrospective methods can give us knowledge.
(E4) + (E5) = (E6) Only reason can give us knowledge. Reason is defined as the necessarily concurrent operation of (ML), (E2) and (E3), through (E1).
(E6 expanded) = (E7) Knowledge is defined as that which is supported by sufficient rational evidence.
(E1 expanded) = (E8) Change exists. Time exists.
(There are probably other ways to get (E8), but this seems to be the simplest)
(M12) + (E8) = (E9) All existents change according to their nature (law of causality)
(E7 expanded) = (E10) Knowledge is hierarchical. More specifically : knowledge is a structure based on perceptual awareness of reality through successive logical integrations.
(E10 expanded) = (E11) Knowledge is contextual. More specifically : the justification of knowledge is tied to our previous logical integrations.
(E11 expanded) = (E12) Knowledge is relative, insofar as context is relative.
(E11 expanded) = (E13) We need to ensure that our knowledge holds in all relevant, available contexts.
(E14) Define falsification as the method to ensure that our knowledge holds in all relevant contexts (predictive tests).
(E13) + (E14) = (E15) Falsification is an important rational method.
(E6) + (E15) = (ES) Foundations of the scientific method. Still missing peer review, numerical accuracy and error bars, clinical trials, and so on, but it's a good start. One can derive these from (ES) or ontological results of (ES).
(E16) Define principles as abstractions that integrate conceptual knowledge within a given domain.
(E16 expanded) = (E17) Principles are one's only means of using conceptual knowledge efficiently.
(E18) Define induction as the generalization of a concept or principle from individual observations.
(E6) + (E17) = (E19) We must use induction in order to subsume our empirical data efficiently using concepts and principles.
(E6 narrowed) = (E20) We can only know that which is observable.
(E20 expanded) = (E21) There is only one fundamental mode of existence, that which is observable. Define this mode of existence as "matter" or "materialism".
(E9 expanded) + (E21) = (E22) The state of existents today follow the state of existents yesterday according to the laws of causality.
(this is a primitive form of O6-O10)
(E22 expanded) = (E23) Justification of induction. I can trust that past experiences will reflect future experiences in accordance with the laws of causality.
From this point on, all separate observations are validated by sense perception through reason.
(E9) = (O1) All existents are subject to causality. That includes ontological causation (O-cause).
(M12) = (O2) Reality is made of stuff that has a definite nature.
(E21) + (O1) + (O2) = (O3) Properties of the nature of stuff must be O-caused. Properties of the nature of stuff can only be O-caused by lower levels of structures of matter.
(O3 narrowed) = (O4) Reality is made of many co-existing levels of structures of matter, that each have a different sort of identity.
(O3 expanded) = (O5) All properties are strictly O-caused by lower levels of structures of matter. Reductionism.
(O6) Define the universe is the sum of all existents.
(O7) Define one of the properties of causality as temporal succession. (from Hume)
(O1 expanded) = (O8) The sum of all existents is subject to causality.
(O7) + (O8 expanded) = (O9) A state of the sum of all existents is caused by the previous state of the sum of all existents.
(O6) + (O9) = (O10) A state of the universe is caused by the previous state of the universe (determinism).
Some ways to derive atheism :
(M9 expanded) = No primary consciousness can exist. (primacy of existence)
(E6 narrowed) = No being that demands the abandon of (E3) can be known to exist. (theological noncognitivism)
(E21 expanded) = There are no supernatural beings. (materialism)
(O3 expanded) = There is no supernatural causation. (naturalism)
-- ethics (value-based)
(M3 expanded) = (V1) I am alive. I survive (sustainment of life) and flourish (fulfillment of value). (expanded moral definition of life)
Observation + (E1) = (V2) Life can and must be sustained by directed action.
(axiomicity of M3) = (V3) A moral agent is necessarily alive.
(V2) + (V3) = (V4) A moral agent necessarily acts. People who are alive are necessarily moral agents.
(V1) + (V4) = (V5) Everyone necessarily acts.
(V2 expanded) = (V6) Some actions sustain life, and some hinder it.
(E9) + (V6) = (V7) Some actions sustain life, and some hinder it, in accordance with the laws of causality. (causality applied to action)
Observation = (V8) There are other people like me.
(V9) Define a need as a rationally desired object in order to pursue life.
Observation = (V10) I have material needs, such as the need for health and food, which contribute directly to my survival.
Observation = (V11) I have mental needs, such as the need for conceptual knowledge, education and art, which contribute to my life by ensuring proper knowledge-acquisition.
Observation = (V12) I have social needs, such as the need for trade, communication, friendship and love, which contribute to the fulfillment of my material and mental needs.
Observation = (V13) I have political needs, such as the need for freedom and objective law, which provide the context for the fulfillment of all my other needs.
(V15) Define a value as an object which sustained possession fulfills a need. Equivalency of need and value.
(V14) + (V15) = (V16) There is a hierarchy of values. Some values are short-range and some values are long-range.
(V17) Define a virtue as a principle of mental habit conductive to moral action (fulfilling values).
Observation = (V18) Long-range consequences can only be grasped abstractly.
(E16) + (V18) = (V20) Principles are one's only means of identifying long-range consequences.
(V16) + (V20) = (V21) One needs a commitment to acting in accordance with principles in pursuit of long-range values.
(V17) + (V21) = (V22) We need virtues.
Justifying some virtues :
(E6 narrowed) = (V23) To act in accordance with moral knowledge demands the volitional adherence to reason.
(V23) = (V24) Rationality is a prime virtue.
(E6 narrowed) = (V25) To act in accordance with moral knowledge demands a commitment to face the results of rational processes.
(V25) = (V26) Honesty is a virtue.
Observation + (V8) = (V27) Other people can be sources of great values and great threats.
(V26) + (V27) = (V28) Justice is a virtue.
Observation = (V29) Cooperation is the best way to fulfill my values.
Observation = (V30) Violence breaks the virtue of rationality.
(V29) + (V30) = (V31) Non-coercion is a virtue.
(E11 narrowed) = (V32) Moral knowledge is contextual.
Observation = (V33) "I" am a separate moral agent from all other individuals. "I" live in a different context than anyone else. Structural Individualism.
(V32) + (V33) = (V34) Moral knowledge cannot be made absolute or collectivized. The expression of values is necessarily individualist.
(P1) Define society as the interacting set of individuals living on a given territory, as well as the institutions they form.
(V13) + (P1) = (P2) I have the need to live in a society that permits the expression of individual values.
(P1) + (P2) = (P3) I have the need to live in a society containing institutions that protect the expression of individual values. The set of said institutions is roughly called "government".
(P4) Define a right as a principle defining the freedom of expression of individual values in a social context.
(P5) Some examples :
* I have the political need for objective law, therefore I have the right of an objective judiciary.
* I have the political need to be able to work, therefore I have the right of employment.
* I have the political need to speak my mind and communicate with others in order to judge truth, therefore I have the right of free speech.
* I have the political need to own property in order to use it to fulfill my values, therefore I have the right of property.
* I have the political need for my life to be protected in order to act, therefore I have the right of life.
In general : I have the right of protection from force or fraud.
(P5 expanded) = (P6) Government should not initiate the use of force.